This may be readily seen by referring to the outline sketched in the previous section. lxvii Had Pentheus put the Chorus into prison, the play would have at once collapsed; and we may fairly allow a position of privilege to so essential a portion of the conventional surroundings of a Greek tragedy. Lastly, at the close of the Second Messenger's speech, in the few sententious lines which, with their didactic moralising, appear to fall rather flat after the swift and energetic account of the catastrophe', we are told that, for mortal men, the highest wisdom is to be found in 'sober sense and awe of things divine.' What are we to make of all this? 135), and thence copied by Scott for a small illustrated edition of Horace published by Bell and Daldy, 1855; the same woodcut has been used in King's Anitique Gems anzd Rings II xxix 9 and in Westropp's Handbook of Archaeologyy, ed. In this gem, which is well accredited, by having been formerly in the Blacas and Strozzi collections, the thyrsus is bound by ribbands near the top, and it therefore occurs to me to suggest that the stick given by Agostini is only an inaccurate rendering of one of the two ribbands in the original, which I have at present been unable to trace. DANCING BACCHANAL, poised on tiptoe, with the left foot thrown back, and balancing on his left shoulder a thyr sus bound with ribbands. The Choral Odes, unlike those of many other dramas of Euripides, are here, as in a piece of the same date, the Ipfziigez Eia inz Azuis, closely connected with the action of the play. In some respects, it is true, the taste for the picturesque among the Greeks was different from that of modern times; but as regards Euripides in particular, it would be easy to quote not a few passages which, even in a modern poet, would be considered picturesque in an eminent degree (e.g. It is, however, worth while to observe that the most telling touches of description in the Hippolytus, where Phaedra longs for 'the pure draught from the dewy fountain,' for 'rest beneath the black poplar in the leafy meadow,' for 'a ride among the woodland pines or over the sands unwashed by the wave,' are all of them put in the lips of a love-sick woman; and, for all this, she is rudely rebuked by her common 1 W. Dionysus himself, at the end of one of his speeches, calls it a mark of true wisdom to cultivate a sage and easy good-temper (641). The chief point, then, in which our woodcut is different from what we know of the lost work of Scopas is the tossing back of the head and hair, which was characteristic of the latter and is not unrepresented in several of our other illustrations (pp. The original is a sard published in Vidoni's Imipf. The original is a 'Florentine gem' first published in Agostini's Gemmie Antiche Figzrate (I pl. In the cabinet of the British Museum, I have observed a Sardonyx very similar in general design to the above gem, and indeed hardly differing at all, except as regards the position of the overturned wine-vessel. vi includes the Bacchae with the notes of Barnes, Reiske, Musgrave, Heath, Beck, Brunck, Porson and others]; (8) l1altthiae, Leipsig, 18I3-29 [notae in Bacchas in vol. ' lartens-Schaafhausen cabinet' Dionysos Leontomorphos. It is doubtless undramatic for the king, after ordering his attendants to capture all the Theban revellers they can find, as well as the Lydian stranger, to allow a band of Asiatic women to go on beating their drums, and dancing and singing unmolested in front of his own palace'. A chorus of aged Thebans, for instance, might have required no departure from dramatic probability, but it would have been a poor exchange for our revel-band of Oriental women, gaily clad in bright attire and singing jubilant songs, as they lightly move to the sound of Bacchanalian music. 512, observzatum est a quibusdam senarios i ps minus 50 priminum pcdema anapaeslu hzabere, et in 950 versibus solutiones 368 esse. present play we have the advantage of two such passages, in which the revels on Cithaeron and the death of Pentheus are described in narratives which are, perhaps, unsurpassed in Greek tragedy for radiant brilliancy, energetic swiftness and the vivid representation of successive incidents, following fast on one another. WVe have a similar instance of repose in Shakespeare in the short dialogue between Duncan and Banquo just as they approach the gates of Macbeth's castle (l Iacbeth I. I-9); upon which it was well observed by Sir Joshua Reynolds that 'their conversation very naturally turns upon the beauty of its situation, and the pleasantness of the air: and Banquo observing the martlets' nests in every recess of the cornice, remarks that where those birds most breed and haunt, the air is delicate. This is well shewn by the moralising refrain at the close of the successive stanzas in one of Wordsworth's poems of the imagination, called' Devotional incitements.' For this illustration I am indebted to Professor Colvin. ON THE PURPOSE OF THE PLA Y lxxv antiquity, who, in the phrase of a hostile critic, is made to describe himself as 'from the scrolls of lore distilling the essence of his wit"? The fate of his Phoenician comrades is ingeniously indicated by the overturned pitcher. Telephus, according to the legend, had at first repelled the Greeks; but Dionysus came to their help, and caused him to be tripped up by a vine, and thereupon wounded by the spear of Achilles. They also shew a certain interdependence on one another; thus, the allusions, in the first Stasimon,, to the places where Dionysus is worshipped, find their echo in the reference to the god's own haunts in the second; the longing for liberty expressed in the second is after an interval caught up by a similar strain in the third; while the moral reflexions of the first are to some extent repeated in the last. The only other course would have involved having a chorus that was either coldly neutral, or actually hostile to the worship of Dionysus, and therefore out of harmony with the object of the play. lxix where, shortly before the tumult of the wild revels of the IValplorisnaci/t, we find Faust quietly talking to Mephistopheles about the charm of silently threading the mazes of the valleys, and of climbing the crags from which the ever-babbling fountain falls, when the breath of spring has already wakened the birch into life, and is just quickening the lingering pine'. In these denunciations of r') o'oro/v, are we really listening to the pupil of Anaxagoras, to him whom his Athenian admirers called the 'philosopher of the stage2,' to the most book-learned of the great Tragic writers of 1 Bathos of this kind is unavoidable whenever the didactic style of poetry follows closely on an instance of a higher type. 158 E, 6 KIv Kh'b S o VTro S 0X6'o0-os, Vitruvius, Book v III, Preface. Mr King informs me that he doubts the antiquity of the ' Florentine gem,' and he suggests that it may be only a fancy sketch. CADMUS ATTACKING THE SERPENT OF THE FOUNTAIN OF ARES. The wounded king of Mysia, with his helmet on his head and with shield and sword beside him, is here bending as a suppliant at an altar on which stands the oracular head of the bearded Dionysus. A., who has kindly permitted its publication, for the first time, in this volume. The original is a sard in the Leake Collection of Gems in the Fitzwilliam Museum (Case II, no. Mr King's catalogue describes it as 'designed with much spirit in the later Greek style.' LITERATURE OF THE PLA Y. Shilleto (1809-1876), whose name is here gratefully recorded by one of his many private pupils, are now printed for the first time from his interleaved 1 - PRE FA CE. Tuck, Assistant Master at Uppingham School, who attended his lectures at King's College. On the general subject, however, I have had the pleasure of attending some of the lectures given by Professor Colvin, and by Dr Waldstein, and it will be observed that one or two incidental points in the Introduction are due to the former. Specialists in this department may perhaps find little that is entirely new to them in these illustrations, but I have had in view the needs of the large body of those viii PREL A CE. v copy of the Poetae Scenici in the Cambridge University Library, as well as a few conjectures and other notes by the same scholar, for some of which I am indebted to the Rev. But, for my special purpose, I have naturally found it necessary to rely in the main, on the study either of the actual monuments of ancient art or published representations of them, besides constantly consulting the somewhat scattered literature of the subject, a conspectus of which, so far as it has come within my own knowledge, is given at the end of the Introduction. who take a general interest in such matters, but to whom the copies of monuments of ancient art hitherto published are often somewhat inaccessible, owing partly to their being generally confined to works that can hardly be consulted except in our larger public libraries. Among the archaeologists of the last generation, to whose works I am thus under special obligations, are Otfried Miller and Otto Jahn. Several of the illustrations, however, are, I have reason to know, more accurate than those that have appeared elsewhere; and I may add in conclusion that a terracotta lamp from Cyprus (on p.
The balance of the composition requires the speech of Cadmus to be followed by a corresponding speech of Agave. As it is, a few touches suffice to give a clear and vivid impression of the kind of scene intended by him, and all more elaborate details would have been obviously out of place; for of this, as of all the master-pieces of Greek literature, the remark of Lessing holds good, 'that it is the privilege of the ancients never in any matter to do too much or too little' (Laokoon, preface). place nurse, who, reflecting perhaps the ordinary Athenian feeling in such matters, warns her mistress that it would be unsafe to express such longings as these in public, as they would at once be set down to a disordered imagination. \A.~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~' ) \o i: i' ONV Tf HE PURPOSE OF THE PLA Y. Among such indications it has been usual to quote one of the speeches of Teiresias, with its protest against rationalising and philosophising about the gods, and its declaration of acquiescence in the traditions of the popular faith (200 ff). 79, and Part II no 6 in the Official Guide to the Graeco-Roman Sculptures in the B. Foremost of the three figures, here represented as moving onwards in the dance, is a Maenad with her head thrown back and her hair streaming loosely from behind her head, partly clad in a talaric chiton, and beating with her right hand the tympfanum which she holds in her left. Behind her, a mantle flutters in the air, with its upper end caught by the hand that holds the knife. A similar design occurs again and again in ancient reliefs (e.g. 62, none of them exactly corresponds to the above description. i 34 41 cxx1 cxxii CXxv CXXV CXXVil cxxvi cxxvii cxxviii cxxviii CXxx 42 cxxxi * The 2 woodcuts marked thus, have been prepared erpressly for this work b)y Mr. For the effect thus produced, we may compare the scene near the end of the first part of Goethe's Faust, 1 E. His political enemy, the ultraconservative Aristophanes, had unscrupulously set him down as an atheist4, though, all the while, it would appear that he had only striven for the recognition of a higher type of the divine than that which was represented in the current mythology of the day. The original is a golden sard belonging to the Hon. ix cxvi xxxii cxvii xlii cxx lix cxx lxxii cxxi lxxxviii xciii cxlviii p. The composition of Messengers' Speeches is one of the points in which Euripides excels; and in the 1 This, as remarked by Hermann, is a characteristic of all his plays that belong to a later date than 01. The quiet passage in its earlier portion, telling of the king and his attendant and their mysterious guide, stealing in silence along the glades of Cithaeron, with the few following touches of description pleasantly representing to us the glen with its rocks and rivulets and overshadowing pine-trees, has, it will be observed, the dramatic effect of heightening by force of contrast the tumultuous excitement attending the deed of horror which is the subject of the latter part of the messenger's recital. Der Frihliing iwebt schon in den Birken, [Und selbst die Fichtefiihll ihn schon! Euripides, like others who have hesitated in accepting unreservedly the tenets of a popular creed, had in his earlier writings run the risk of being misunderstood by those who clung more tenaciously to the traditional beliefs. The weapon is to be seen resting against the altar. Giustiniani Palace, Iozme *Mlask of Silenus and Dionysus. Hence our play, with its story of just doom falling on the 'godless' Pentheus' (rov i Oeov, 995), may be regarded as in some sort an apologia and an eirenicon, or as, at any rate, a confession on the part of the poet that he was fully conscious that, in some of the simple 1 Ar.
After a while, it occurred to me that the materials thus collected might serve as a PREFA CE.